Sunday, 20 April 2014


everything you need to know about plowshare economics, it's a nice option to resolve all the economic problems and the environmental too, and the gas war in ukraine, plowshare economics it's the future in red....orgiastic blasts of pure economic bliss....


  • The USA and Russia have investigated and trialled the use of nuclear explosions for civil engineering purposes, though only one significant construction resulted: a dam in Kazakhstan. A DAM MESS IN UKRAINE
  • Russia has used nuclear explosions to extinguish major gas well fires. 
  • Some 150 experiments spanned 1957-75 in the USA and 1965-89 in the USSR.
  • PNEs will be banned under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty when it enters into force.
Following the military use of nuclear weapons in August 1945, attention turned to harnessing nuclear power in a more controlled manner for electricity generation. However, at the same time there was considerable investigation and testing of peaceful nuclear explosions (PNE) by both the USA and USSR.
From the outset it was realized that thermonuclear blasts (as distinct from fission) would have the least potential for radioactive fallout. However, along with early weapons tests, some PNE tests did contribute to atmospheric radioactivity, and some test sites now pose a radiological hazard.

Applications of PNEs

Possible applications for peaceful nuclear explosions include:
  • Large-scale excavation to create reservoirs, canals and ports.
  • Stimulating oil and gas recovery.
  • Creating cavities for underground oil, gas or waste storage.
  • Extinguishing gas field fires.
  • Space propulsion.
  • Interception of potentially dangerous Near Earth Objects (asteroids, etc).
  • Recovering oil from oil shale.
  • Energy production via molten fluorides underground producing steam for electricity.
  • Breaking up copper and phosphate ore preparatory to mining.
Of these, the first four have been tested (and even applied in some cases by the USSR) while the remaining five have been investigated but not tested.
A total of 151 PNE experiments have been carried out by both the USA (27) and the USSR (124 plus 32 tests that helped develop explosive devices used in PNEs). No other country has ever carried out a PNE testa and there are currently no moves towards a resumption of tests.
Some advocates claim that PNEs would be the most economically feasible method of carrying out large terrestrial engineering projects, and that they provide one of only a few feasible means of managing large gas field fires and destroying chemical weapons.

USA: Plowshare Program

The Plowshare Program was the name given to the main US efforts to promote and develop nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes during the 1960s and 1970s, concluding in 1975.
Project Plowshare was formally established in mid-1957 by the former US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). Later in the year, the AEC carried out the first underground nuclear explosion at the Nevada Test Site – the Rainier event, of 1.7 kilotonc. Results from this validated theoretical concepts and gave impetus to Plowshare. In total, 27 PNE tests consisting of 35 separate blasts were conducted between December 1961 and May 1973 in the USA as part of the program.
Most of the Plowshare proposals were for large-scale civil engineering projects involving massive earthmoving, specifically to improve the shipping lanes linking the Atlantic and the Pacific. At least one was intended to widen the Panama canal, another aimed to create a new sea-level waterway through Nicaragua. Two other geo-engineering proposals were for a harbour and a highway and rail cutting. Other Plowshare proposals and tests sought in various ways to exploit other applications listed above, particularly gas and oil recovery.
From a scientific and engineering perspective the program was by most accounts successful; however, economic viability was questionable and no commercial operation involving PNEs has resulted in the USA or been carried out by a US organization. Over time, scientists learned how to shape charges to provide the desired engineering result and also almost completely to eliminate the release of radioactive materials. However, not all explosions proceeded as planned and in certain cases, notably the Sedan blast (see below), significant radioactive releases occurred.
An early proposal was Operation Chariot, accepted by the AEC in 1958, to build a harbour at Point Hope, Alaska to facilitate the transport of coal and oil. The harbour was to be about a 1.5 km long and 0.8 km wide. One scheme for its development involved the use of five chained thermonuclear explosions. The plan was permanently shelved in 1962 due to local opposition from the Inupiat Eskimos and conservationists concerned about the health of the local ecosystem which the Inupiat relied upon for food. The economic viability was also questioned.
In 1959 the Oilsands study looked at using a PNE for extracting oil from Canada's Athabasca tar sands, and the Olishale study looked at shattering oil shales to enhance oil recovery from them, this being taken further in the 1967 Bronco study focused in Colorado. A 1971 study looked a using a PNE to harness geothermal energy.
In 1963, the Caryall study on the use of PNEs to excavate a cutting through the Bristol Mountains near Amboy was carried out by the California State division of Highways and Santa Fe Railway. The 3.4 km cut was designed to accommodate both the Interstate 40 highway and a new rail line. About 22 nuclear explosions would have been required, ranging in size from 20 to 200 kilotons, providing a total explosive force of 1730 kilotons. The plan was cut from the US budget in 1965.
After Chariot, almost all excavation research to 1970 was then focused on building a sea-level canal across the Central American isthmus in support of the Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic Canal Study Commission to replace the Panama canal. As part of this project, six cratering experiments were carried out at the Nevada Test Site over 1961-68, including Sedan described below. Part of the purpose was to establish means to reduce radioactive contamination from such blasts.

PNE tests in the USA

The first full test of the Plowshare Program was Project Gnome, which took place in December 1961, near Carlsbad, New Mexico, in a bedded salt formation. International observers were in attendance. The device was placed in a tunnel 360 metres underground and the resulting 3.1 kiloton blast created a cavity 20 metres wide and 50 metres high. The explosion was supposed to be self-sealing, but a brief burst of radioactive material was released. Some six months after the test, a new access tunnel was drilled and crews entered to survey the results. They found a blue, green and violet landscape of melted salt stalactites, and the temperature of the cavity was still above 60°C.
The second PNE test under project Plowshare was also one of the largest. The Sedan blast took place at Yucca Flat on the Nevada Test Site in July 1962. It was a shallow underground explosion designed to test the cratering potential of PNEs for the creation of artificial lakes and reservoirs. A thermonuclear device was inserted 194 metres into the desert alluvium. The resulting 104 kiloton explosion created a dome 90 metres high which then exploded outwards displacing more than 10 million tonnes of material to create a crater 100 metres deep and 390 metres wide. Of all Plowshare nuclear tests, Sedan created the most radioactive fallout. Twin dust plumes deposited radioactive material downwind, with the highest concentrations in Iowa and South Dakota of more than 0.22 gigabecquerels per square metre.
Three separate PNE tests were carried out to assess the ability of nuclear explosions to stimulate gas production from low-permeability formations. These were Gasbuggy (December 1967, New Mexico: 29 kilotons), Rusilon (September 1969, Colorado: 43 kilotons) and Rio Blanco (May 1973, Colorado: 3 blasts of 33 kilotons each at depths of 1600-2100 metres using charges 195 mm diameter). Rio Blanco also marked the end of the US PNE test program. It was already known that conventional explosions could stimulate production of gas, and the use of nuclear explosives just added to the overall force of the explosion. While the level of gas production from the tests was less than expected, it would have been sufficient to make the process commercially viable if the resulting gas had not been considered too radiologically contaminated by tritium for saled.
Starting with the Gnome test in 1961, Plowshare provided support for scientific experiments, primarily as additions to weapons tests, to look at the possibility of using these high neutron fluxes to produce heavy transplutonic elements well beyond the end of the Periodic Table. The ultimate goal was the use of multiple neutron captures to reach the predicted 'island of stability' at element 114. Between 1962 and 1969, Plowshare supported the design and fielding of five dedicated experiments and 'add-ons' to some 10 weapons tests at the Nevada Test Site in an attempt to reach this elusive goal. Certainly large quantities of some heavy elements were produced, and traces were recovered from the melt zone, e.g. the actinides curium-250 and fermium-257.

USA: Other proposals for the use of PNEs

Not all US concepts for the use of PNEs officially came under the banner of the Plowshare Program. A few other proposals, developed by various organizations, include the potential use of PNEs for space travel and energy production.
PNEs for space travel
Project Orion was the first serious attempt to develop the concept of Nuclear Pulse Propulsion, i.e. using nuclear explosions for spacecraft thrust. It was initiated by the company General Atomics in 1958 and continued until 1965, though impetus for the idea was largely killed off by the signing of the Partial Test Ban Treatye in 1963, which banned nuclear testing in space due to fears over the effects of fallout. The basic concept was to detonate shaped nuclear charges in space behind a spacecraft mounted with a pusher plate and a shock absorber so as to transfer momentum. The principle was shown to be robust, leading to both excellent thrust and impulse characteristics, something quite rare for space propulsion techniques which usually trade one off against the other. It was also well suited for large spacecraft (about 1000 t) since significant mass was required to shield against the effects of radiation.

Electricity from PNEs

One possibility of harnessing nuclear fusion as an energy source was the suggestion of detonating small thermonuclear weapons in an underground cavity and capturing the energy. The Pacer Project, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratories during the mid-1970s, investigated the design and operation of such a system. The original proposal involved the use of low-yield hydrogen bombs, while subsequent proposals advocated simpler fission devices. One variation of the plan called for nuclear devices in the kiloton range to be detonated in an underground cavity at regular intervals of about 45 minutes. The heat would be captured by molten fluoride salts flowing down the chamber wall which would then act as a heat exchange fluid producing steam to drive a turbine for electricity. The early plan envisaged the blast chamber as being inside a salt dome, but later developments called for a fully-engineered vessel. The concept never developed past the planning stage.

USSR: Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy

The USSR equivalent to the Plowshare Program was Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy. It comprised mainly Program 7, Peaceful Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy.
Overall the PNE test regime was much larger than the US effort and concentrated on a more diverse range of applications. Early support for a comprehensive test ban meant that PNE testing didn’t get underway in the USSR until 1965; it then continued right up to 1989, when a moratorium on nuclear weapons testing was implemented. Like Plowshare, the program was originally focused on excavation and oil and gas recovery, but interest in other applications soon emerged.
In 1965, in cooperation with the Oil Production Ministry, Program 7 began field experiments directed at using nuclear explosions to increase oil production, and also planning experiments in salt to produce cavities. The nuclear weapons laboratory at Arzamas-16 near Gorky initially played the major role in adapting military explosions to peaceful applications.
Overall, some 124 PNE tests were carried out at sites throughout the former Soviet Union (80 in Russia, 39 in Kazakhstan, two in Ukraine, two in Uzbekistan and one in Turkmenistan)f. Five PNEs were used for construction of water reservoirs, 25 for constructing underground cavities, mostly in salt and sponsored by the Gas Production Ministry, 21 for stimulating oil and gas recovery, and five for controlling runaway gas well fires. A further 30 or more tests related to developing explosives, hence total of about 156.
Scientifically, Program 7 included 39 tests spread right across the USSR sponsored by the Geology Ministry for deep seismic sounding of the Earth's mantle, from 1971-88. There were also more than a dozen tests over 1975-79 on transplutonic element production, sponsored by the Ministry of Medium Machine Building (responsible for the Soviet weapons program), all 180 km north of Astrakhan.

Chagan: water reservoir

One of the better known tests is the January 1965 test at Chagan, on the edge of the Semipalatinsk Test Site in Kazakhstan. Designed to test the suitability of PNEs for creating reservoirs, it was the first experiment carried out in the Soviet PNE program and, at 140 kilotons, the largest of any PNE test. The device was placed in a 178 metre deep hole in the dry bed of the Chagan River so that the crater lip would dam up the river during periods of high flow. The blast formed a crater 400 metres across and 100 metres deep with a lip height of 20 to 38 metres. Subsequent to the blast, a channel was cut into the crater allowing it, and the reservoir behind it, to fill up with water. Initially the crater itself held 6.4 gigalitres of water and reservoir contained some 10 gigalitres, but subsidence later reduced this figure by about 25%.
Radiation dose levels in the 1990s were reported as about one hundred times background levels at the lip of the crater, and the crater water was about 100 times drinking water standard for radionuclides, though 100-150 metres away dose levels were at background level. It was estimated that some 20% of the radioactive products from the test escaped the blast zone, and some were detected over Japan. This resulted in complaints from the USA, which thought the explosion was a weapons test and in breach of the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty.

Kama-Pechora canal project

In 1965, another project became the primary focus of the Soviet nuclear excavation program – the construction of a canal to divert water from the Pechora River in the Arctic region into the Volga River basin and Caspian Sea, which had been depleted over the preceding 35 years as a result of climatic anomalies and municipal and agricultural uses of water from the Volga-Kama River system. Water from the north would be diverted through a 112 km canal into the Kama and thence south to the Volga River and the Caspian Sea.
It was proposed to use nuclear explosives to dig the central 65 km of the canal where it passes through higher elevations. This would involve several hundred devices, firing up to 20 at a time, with aggregate yield of up to 3000 kilotons. After initial successful tests – Tel'kem 1 & 2 – approval was given in 1969 to proceed with the project. The next stage of the project involved a major thermonuclear test in 1971 – Taiga – in saturated alluvial deposits at the south end of the route, and showed that nuclear excavation would be unsuitable there. By the mid-1980s, plans for the canal were abandoned.

Urtabulak: gas well fire

In 1966, a nuclear explosive was detonated at Urtabulak gas field in Southern Uzbekistan in order to extinguish a gas well fire that had been burning for almost three years and had resisted numerous attempts at control. The gas fountain, which formed at pressures of almost 300 atmospheres, had resulted in the loss of over 12 million cubic metres of gas per day through a 200 mm casing – enough to supply a city the size of St Petersburg. Two 445 mm holes were drilled that aimed to come as close as possible to the well at a depth of about 1500 metres in the middle of a 200 metre thick clay zone. One of these came to within about 35 m of the well and was used to emplace the special 30-kiloton charge which had been developed by the Arzamas weapons laboratory. Immediately after the explosion the fire went out and the well was sealed.
This was the first of five PNEs used for this purpose, and all but one was completely successful in extinguishing the fire and sealing the well. No radioactivity above background levels was detected in subsequent surveys of any of the sites.

Treaties governing the use of PNEs 

Article V of the 1970 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) states that the "potential benefits from any peaceful applications of nuclear explosions will be made available to non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty on a non-discriminatory basis."g
Subsequent to the NPT, the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty is a bilateral agreement between the USA and the USSR designed to allow the investigation of the potential peaceful uses of nuclear explosions without promoting weapons development. It was signed in April 1976, came into force in December 1990h and governs the use of PNEs until the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) enters into force.
Under the PNE Treaty, no single explosion may be greater than 150 kilotons and no group explosion may consist of an aggregate yield greater than 1500 kilotons. In addition, signatory parties are committed to sharing information about explosions, allowing access to the blast site and otherwise not hindering the verification process. The treaty governs permissible underground nuclear explosions which may be carried out for peaceful purposes. A major driver for establishment of the treaty was the Russian desire not to be misunderstood in relation to the Partial Test Ban Treatyi when constructing the Kama-Pechora canal project, which would have involved many explosions (the US Plowshare Program being finished by then).
Under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), the use of PNEs will be prohibited. However China has consistently pushed for this condition to be changed, and while it has signed (but not yet ratified) the treaty, it has requested that the issue be reconsidered 10 years after it enters into force. The CTBT opened for signature in September 1996 and will enter into force when all countries listed in Annex 2 of the treaty have signed itj.

Further Information


a. India claimed that its 1974 nuclear test was a PNE, but it was not part of any civil program.
b. The Plowshare Program name derives from a prophetic Bible passage (Micah 4:3) about beating swords into plowshares as nations turn away from warfare.
c. The force of explosions is measured in kilotons: the approximate equivalent of one thousand tonnes of TNT, set by international agreement as 4.184 GJ. For comparison, the Hiroshima bomb was about 15 kt, Nagasaki about 25 kTON
d. There has been a resurgence of interest in drilling near the Rusilon site. As of August 2009, there were 84 permits issued within 5 km of the site, 11 of which were within 1.5 km. Currently there is a 0.8 km radius imposition on drilling near the test site, but there is talk of this being lifted.

 A 2005 report from the US Department of Energy (DOE) states that the radiation levels at the site surface and in the groundwater has reduced to background levels. In contrast, the Gasbuggy site is considered a contamination issue as radioactive material, most likely tritium, has migrated through the bedrock.

g. Article V of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) states:
Each Party to the Treaty undertakes to take appropriate measures to ensure that, in accordance with this Treaty, under appropriate international observation and through appropriate international procedures, potential benefits from any peaceful applications of nuclear explosions will be made available to non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty on a non-discriminatory basis and that the charge to such Parties for the explosive devices used will be as low as possible and exclude any charge for research and development. Non-nuclearweapon States Party to the Treaty shall be able to obtain such benefits, pursuant to a special international agreement or agreements, through an appropriate international body with adequate representation of non-nuclear-weapon States. Negotiations on this subject shall commence as soon as possible after the Treaty enters into force. Non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty so desiring may also obtain such benefits pursuant to bilateral agreements.

h. The Treaty between the United States of America and The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes (the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty, PNET) was a companion treaty to the Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests, also known as the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), to cover PNEs carried out underground. The TTBT was signed in 1974, but not ratified until after the PNET had been agreed in 1976. Although both treaties did not enter into force until 1990, both parties in 1976 agreed to observe the limit of 150 kilotons

j. The CTBT will enter into force once all the 44 states listed in Annex 2 of the treaty have signed and ratified it. Three have not yet signed it: India, Pakistan and North Korea; and six others have signed the treaty, but not yet ratified it: China, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Israel and the USA.


Wednesday, 9 April 2014


Democratic Error with this control cookie
In an ideal colourless economic democracy where one poor, black or white one vote.... actually does not holds a major impact in democratic life, because poor people have poor education and poor judgement or inability to judge Dredd ideas and economic ideologies of dread or not and economic issues that would be a big problem for democracy in the XXI th century fox. But we do not live in the real waterworld, but in a virtual one not an ideal world to survive in the long run, and in the long run, let's say twenty years... the further away you move from the ideal of democracy
the less rational the virtual democracy becomes.
You're in the United States, have some non democratic moments and the party allegiance in 1850-1880's and 1898-1914- 1919 or 1932-1945 have becoming emotional processes (emotional political and economic processes i should say) like the Obama or the Bush son or father election's or the Reagan's against Carter
And of course the CIA FBI manipulation of elections in this foreign or domestic political candidates or those working directly for the economic~political conglomerates or manipulating those weak links buying their allegiance, there's a pot of drugs at the end of the american rainbow.Iran -Contras ....und so weiter

The issues are unimportant, being merely emotional control cookie's or control touchstones for uninformed voters and in this democratic fail who votes? Doctor Who votes?

Monday, 24 March 2014


The land, thinly populated and producing in wasteful. haphazard
way enormous surpluses of every kind, is deemed by its owners,
a mere handful of men, unable to accommodate not only the starving millions of Europe but our own starving hordes. 

A country which makes itself ridiculous by sending out 
armed missionaries and missionary drones
to the most remote parts of the globe 
asking for pennies of the poor
in order to maintain the Christian work of deluded devils 
who no more represent Christ than I do the Pope, 
and yet unable through its churches and missions at home
 to rescue the weak and defeated, the miserable 
and the oppressed. 
The hospitals, the insane asylums,
the prisons filled to overflowing.
 Counties, some of them big as a
European country, practically uninhabited, 
owned by an intangible
corporation whose tentacles reach everywhere and whose responsibilities nobody can formulate or clarify. 
A man seated in a comfortable
chair in New York, Chicago or San Francisco, a man surrounded
by every luxury and yet paralyzed with fear and anxiety,
controls the lives and destinies of thousands of men and women
whom he has never seen, whom he never wishes to see and whose
fate he is thoroughly uninterested in.
This is what is called progress in the year 1941 in these United
States of America. Since I am not of Indian, Negro or Mexican
descent I do not derive any vengeful joy in delineating this picture
of the white man's civilization. I am a descendant of two men who
ran away from their native land because they did not wish to become soldiers.
 My descendants, ironically enough, will no longer be
able to escape that duty: the whole white world has at last been
turned into an armed camp.
 Ohio has given the country more Presidents
than any other State in the Union. 
Presidents like McKinley, Hayes,
Garfield) Grant. Harding-weak, characterless men. 
It has also given
us writers like Sherwood Anderson and Kenneth Patchen, 
the one looking for poetry everywhere and the other driven almost mad by the evil and ugliness everywhere. 
The one walks the streets at night
in solitude and tells us of the imaginary life going on behind closed
 the other is so stricken with pain and chagrin by what he
sees that he Ie-creates the cosmos in terms of blood and tears. stands it upside down and walks out on it in loathing and disgust.
 I am glad I had the chance to see these Ohio towns, this 
Mahoning River which looks as if the poisonous bile of all humanity had: poured into it, though in truth it may contain nothing more evil
than the chemicals and waste products of the mills and factories.
I am glad I had the chance to see the color of the earth here in

winter~ a color not of age and death but of disease and sorrow. Glad I could take in the rhinoceros-skinned banks that rise from the
river's edge and in the pale light of a wintry afternoon reflect the
lunacy of a planet given over to rivalry and hatred. 
Glad I caught a glimpse of those slag heaps which look like the accumulated droppings of sickly prehistoric monsters which passed in the night.
 It helps me to understand the black and monstrous poetry which the younger man distils in order to preserve his sanity;
 helps me to understand why the older writer had to pretend madness in order
to escape the prison which he found himself in when he was working in the paint factory.
 It helps me to understand how proSperity built
on this plane of life can make Ohio the mother of presidents and
the persecutor of men of genius.
'The saddest sight of all is the automobiles parked outside the
mills and factories. The automobile stands out in my mind as the
very symbol of falsity and illusion. There they are, thousands upon
thousands of them, in such profusion that it would seem as if no
man were too poor to own one. In Europe, Asia, Mrica the toiling

masses of humanity look with watery eyes towards this Paradise
where the worker rides to work in his own car.
 What a magnificent world of opportunity it must be,
 they think to themselves. (At least we like to think that 
they think that way) 
They never ask what one must do to have this great boon. 
They don't realize that when the American worker steps out 
of his shining tin chariot he delivers himself body and soul to the most stultifying labor a man can perform.
 They have NO idea that it is possible, even when
one works under the best possible conditions, to forfeit all rights
as a human being. 
They don't know that the best possible conditions
(in American lingo) mean the biggest profits for the boss,
the utmost servitude for the worker, the greatest confusion and disillusionment for the public in general.
 They see a beautiful, shining
car which purrs like a cat they see endless concrete roads so smooth
and flawless that the driver has difficulty keeping awake; they see
cinemas which look like palaces; they see department stores with
mannikins dressed like princesses. 
They see the glitter and paint, the baubles, the gadgets, 
the luxuries; they don't see the bitterness in the heart, 
tile skepticism, the cynicism, the emptiness, the sterility, 
the despair, the hopelessness which is eating up the American worker. 
They don't want to see this-they are fun of misery
They want a way out: they want the lethal comforts.
conveniences, luxuries. And they follow in our footsteps-blindly,
heedlessly, recklessly.

Tuesday, 4 March 2014


Government LEAD OR HAVE FEAT OF LEAD PLUMBUM LEAD THE WAY  spending is out of control and, while most say they want spending cuts, people oppose cuts that impact them. Among those who get government money, there’s practically an unspoken, unbreakable pact to keep the money coming. But when I say that the national debt cannot be paid off, it’s not a political forecast; it’s a statement on the flawed nature of the dollar.
Astute observers call the dollar a fiat currency. Fiat means force. It’s true that we’re forced to use the dollar (e.g. by taxes on gold IN LEAD IN SILVER IN COPPER IN BILLIOMAIRES) but the dollar is also irredeemable
There’s no way to cash it in. 
The dollar is credit that is never repaid. THE GOLDEN SHARES YES FOREVER AND EVER
Today’s dollar is a dishonored promise.
This was not always true. Before 1933, the dollar represented an obligation to pay 1/20 ounce of gold. People could deposit gold and get paper notes in receipt. Those notes circulated, and any bearer could redeem them for gold. Back then, $20 was not the gold price. It was the legal rate at which gold was deposited and redeemed.
In 1971, President Nixon changed the monetary system with the stroke of his pen, making the Fed no longer obligated to redeem dollars for gold. The consequences of using debt as if it were money were soon clear. Rising debt became a more serious problem than rising prices.
To understand debt, credit and the importance of redemption, consider Joe borrowing sugar from neighbor Sue. To pay Sue back, Joe goes to the store, buys sugar and hands it to Sue. Not only is Sue repaid; the debt goes out of existence—it isextinguished. Borrowing money used to be like borrowing sugar. The repayment of debt in gold-backed dollars settled the loan and wiped the debt clean.
Not anymore, since Nixon detached the dollar from gold. By making people pay with paper-only dollars, each debt is transferred, not cleared.
Suppose Sue owed Joe $1,000, then hands Joe ten $100 bills. Sue gets out of the debt loop. But now the Fed owes Joe the $1,000. What does Joe do? He deposits his cash in a bank. Now the bank owes Joe money, while the Fed owes the bank. What does the bank do? It buys a Treasury bond. Now the Treasury owes the bank. And so on.
By Nixon’s design, the system omits a crucial feature. The extinguisher of debt, gold, is not allowed to do its job. Debt can only be transferred from one party to another. It’s like a lump being pushed around under a rug. With no means of final payment, that lump is never put in the trash. Debt is never extinguished.
In fact, the debt must increase, because the interest is constantly accruing. Interest is added to the debt, as it can’t be paid off either. Total debt must grow by at least the interest. Debt actually increases faster than that, because the government craves what now passes for growth.
The rate of debt increase is proportional to the debt itself. It is not a fixed dollar amount, such as $100 billion a year. It is instead a percent of total debt. Mathematics has a term for this type of growth: an exponential function.
Exponential growth is not sustainable, according to credible scientists. ONLY WITH EXTRA WORLDS 
Mainstream economists ignore this fact in the hope that that somehow growth can outpace debt, one year a time.
But exponentially rising debt is not sustainable because the capacity to service the debt is finite. Without a means of extinguishing debt, servicing is merely borrowing new money to pay off old debts. This is the equivalent of taking out a home equity loan to get money to pay the mortgage.
The U.S. debt is putting us in danger of economic catastrophe. Like Greece, which found no more buyers for their bonds, the U.S. relies on selling new bonds to pay interest and principal when due. The difference is that the whole world bids on U.S. Treasury bonds, for now. But eventually, market participants will realize that the American debt cannot be paid off.

China? A Wealth Confiscation Shock Wave?

24hGold - China? A Wealth Conf...
17 Minutes, 20 Slides
In Part II of this two part series John & Gord continue on their around the globe review in assessing what is most likely to blow up first. The problems in China dominates the discussion as does what can only be described as a Wealth Confiscation Shock Wave.


The Shadow Banking which was central to the 2008 Financial Crisis is now orders of magnitude larger in China with even less regulatory oversight.
24hGold - China? A Wealth Conf...
As a consequence Non Performing Loans (NPL) are now skyrocketing.
24hGold - China? A Wealth Conf...
Despite attempts by China to bring some control to the Shadow Banking activities it appears to be too little, too late.
24hGold - China? A Wealth Conf...
Wealth Confiscation Shock Wave?
What Should Individuals Do?
  • Monetary Expansion is Currency Debasement
Nothing More Than Wealth Confiscation to Finance Excess Debts
  • Macro-Prudential Strategy of Financial Repression
Accelerating Government Wealth Confiscation
For more detail signup for your ........DEMISE

Saturday, 1 March 2014


De Officiis (On Duties or On Obligations) is an essay by Marcus Tullius Cicero divided into three books, in which Cicero expounds his conception of the best way to live, behave, and observe moral obligations.
De Officiis was written in October–November 44 BC, in under four weeks. This was Cicero’s last year alive, and he was 62 years of age. Cicero was at this time still active in politics, trying to stop revolutionary forces from taking control of the Roman Republic. Despite his efforts, the republican system failed to revive even upon the assassination of Caesar, and Cicero was himself assassinated shortly thereafter.
The essay was written in the form of a letter to his son with the same name, who studied philosophy in Athens. Judging from its form, it is nonetheless likely that Cicero wrote with a broader audience in mind. The essay was published posthumously.
De Officiis has been characterized as an attempt to define ideals of public behavior.

 It criticizes the recently overthrown dictator Julius Caesar in several places, and his dictatorship as a whole.

Although Cicero was influenced by the Academic, Peripatetic, and Stoic schools of Greek philosophy, this work shows the influence of the Stoic philosopher Panaetius. The essay discusses what is honorable (Book I), what is expedient or to one’s advantage (Book II), and what to do when the honorable and expedient conflict (Book III). Cicero says they are the same and that they only appear to be in conflict. In Book III, Cicero expresses his own ideas. Michael Grant tells us that “Cicero himself seems to have regarded this treatise as his spiritual testament and masterpiece.”
Cicero claims that the absence of political rights corrupts moral virtues. Cicero also speaks of a natural law that is said to govern both humans and gods alike.
Cicero urged his son Marcus to follow nature and wisdom, as well as politics, and warned against pleasure and indolence. Cicero’s essay relies heavily on anecdotes, much more than his other works, and is written in a more leisurely and less formal style than his other writings, perhaps because he wrote it hastily. Like the satires of Juvenal, Cicero’s De Officiis refers frequently to current events of his time.
The work’s legacy is profound. Although not a Christian work, St. Ambrose in 390 declared it legitimate for the Church to use (along with everything else Cicero, and the equally popular Roman philosopher Seneca, had written). It became the moral authority during the Middle Ages. Of the Church Fathers, Saint Augustine, St. Jerome and even more so St. Thomas Aquinas, are known to have been familiar with it. Illustrating its importance, some 700 handwritten copies remain extant in libraries around the world dating back to before the invention of the printing press. Only the Latin grammarian Priscian is better attested to with such handwritten copies, with some 900 remaining extant. Following the invention of the printing press, De Officiis was the second book to be printed—second only to the Gutenberg Bible.
Petrarch, the father of humanism and a leader in the revival of Classical learning, championed Cicero. Several of his works build upon the precepts of De officiis. The Catholic humanist, Erasmus, published his own edition in Paris in 1501. His enthusiasm for this moral treatise is expressed in many works. The German humanist, Philip Melanchthon established De officiis in Lutheran humanist schools.
T. W. Baldwin said that “in Shakespeare’s day De Officiis was the pinnacle of moral philosophy”.Sir Thomas Elyot, in his popular Governour (1531), lists three essential texts for bringing up young gentlemen: Plato’s Works, Aristotle’s Ethics, and De Officiis.
In the 17th century it was a standard text at English schools (Westminster and Eton) and universities (Cambridge and Oxford). It was extensively discussed by Grotius and Pufendorf.Hugo Grotius drew heavily on De officiis in his major work, On the Law of War and Peace. It influenced Robert Sanderson and John Locke.
In the 18th century, Voltaire said of De Officiis “No one will ever write anything more wise”.Frederick the Great thought so highly of the book that he asked the scholar Christian Garve to do a new translation of it, even though there had been already two German translations since 1756. Garve’s project resulted in 880 additional pages of commentary.
It continues to be one of the most popular of Cicero’s works because of its style, and because of its depiction of Roman political life under the Republic.
..and brave he surely cannot possibly be that counts pain the supreme evil, nor temperate he that holds pleasure to be the supreme good. (No man can be brave who thinks pain the greatest evil; nor temperate, who considers pleasure the highest good.) (Latin: fortis vero dolorem summum malum iudicans aut temperans voluptatem summum bonum statuens esse certe nullo modo potest) (I, 5)
We are not born, we do not live for ourselves alone; our country, our friends, have a share in us. (We are not born for ourselves alone.) (Latin: non nobis solum nati sumus ortusque nostri partem patria vindicat, partem amici) (I, 22)
Let us remember that justice must be observed even to the lowest. (Latin: Meminerimus autem etiam adversus infimos iustitiam esse servandam) (I, 41)
Let arms yield to the toga, the laurel defer to praise. (Latin: cedant arma togae concedat laurea laudi) (I, 77)
It is the function of justice not to do wrong to one’s fellow-men; of considerateness, not to wound their feelings; and in this the essence of propriety is best seen. (Justice consists in doing no injury to men; decency in giving them no offense.) (Latin: Iustitiae partes sunt non violare homines, verecundiae non offendere, in quo maxime vis perspicitur decori) (I, 99)
Is anyone unaware that Fortune plays a major role in both success and failure? (Latin: Magnam vim esse in fortuna in utramque partem, vel secundas ad res vel adversas, quis ignorat?) (II, 19)
Of evils choose the least. (Latin: Primum, minima de malis.) (III, 102)
Time heals all wounds. (Latin: Diem adimere aegritudinem hominibus.) (I, 30)

Friday, 14 February 2014


 Letters to a Future Tense

“In 1917 Olaf Stapledon published “Letters to the Future,” addressed to his great grandson in the year 1999.

“To my Great Grandson in early manhood. Sir,

If ever you come upon this letter, forgive its preglacial dialect, and have patience to spell out its meaning. How gladly would I address you in whatever speech lives in your ears! The thoughts which follow must, I know, reach you only as dead and fragile specimens; but today they live. They flit among us dazzlingly and elusively, and we fight about them; for some of us fear them as the plague and would exterminate them, while others prize them as the light of our world...

In some such vein as this might I preach you as good a half-truth as ever became a slogan. But it is only half the truth. And moreover preaching won’t go down with one’s relatives. So I will make a plain tale of my faith, and temper it with many queries. For obviously we who believe may be mistaken. You perhaps will have already exposed our error and set our altar in your museum. Indeed even today certain clever young persons are trying to budge it. They think, I suppose, that because so many goods have gone bad on our hands goodness itself must be illusory. Well, they may prove right in the end; but meanwhile we find some amusement in watching them apparently tugging in vain at the rock face. Whether they are right or wrong they have not yet convinced us. We still believe, and must act on our belief. Folly is less shameful than disloyalty.

But it may well seem inappropriate that I, whose career has been a texture of good luck and bad management, should undertake to be the spokesman of an age which, whatever its failings, has not been inarticulate. I speak, however, as kinsman to kinsman, hoping that something of the family mannerism may render me intelligible to you when our more public voices have already become archaic. Further it is just possible that my very obscurity may fit me to speak more faithfully for my period than any of its great unique personalities.

But how can I write cogently to one with whom I am not even acquainted? Are you rich with the culture of your age, or are you a boor or a philistine? Are you curious about the nature of things, or content to see no further than your own food and the curves of woman? I cannot know; but I shall presume that you have the broad interests that are not uncommon in our family, and (like the rest of us) a certain capacity of reasoning. If you have not, it is to be hoped that you will at least have the sense to hand this letter, and those which follow, to someone of intelligence,—if there be any such alive in your day.

For in ours it is impossible to be sure that the human mind is not destroying itself. We seem to ourselves to be in a unique crisis of this planet’s history, a crisis which may soon end, or may, we suspect, drag on even far beyond the lives of your remote descendants. We are accustomed to describe man’s present plight thus. His knowledge and power have lately increased extravagantly. His mind is embracing regions hitherto unguessed; and he can give effect to his will as never before. But these wide and deep discoveries, which should enlighten him as to what is truly desirable, do not in general have any influence on his choice of ends. He is ruled almost entirely by his animal and ancestral nature. He behaves very seldom in the manner that is uniquely human. Quite rightly he seeks the fulfillment of bodily and personal needs; and he even knows how to subordinate these to ends deemed more important; but his remoter ends are not as a rule chosen rationally, and are seldom objectively valid. He can transcend his private needs only for outworn or mistaken ideals imposed by ancestral taboos. For these alone are backed up by the forces of habit and public opinion.

Few of us today have seen what man is and what he might become. And of these, fewer see the starry universe as anything more than the stage of man’s drama. Even when we glimpse the things that are better than food and sex and applause, and better than all the virtues, we cannot long act in conformity with our vision. Very soon we succumb to the old cravings or the old sightless conscience. And so the great power that we are acquiring issues in disaster. And no one knows what will become of his own children in the stupid riot.

There seem to us three possibilities with regard to the world in your time. Either the interest of the mass of men and women will have definitely passed beyond the puerile ends which infect us, and a new epoch will be dawning in the life of this planet; or, like us, you will continue to be at heart no more than anthropoid. The latter is the more probable alternative. And if this is the case, either civilization will still be hanging by a thread, or it will be already shattered.

I may then be addressing one whose society will have crashed into a second barbarism before ever it has achieved true civilization, one who may perhaps regard us (if he knows of us at all) with the misunderstanding adulation so often lavished on a more intelligent past. Or I may be exposing myself to one who will really be of a finer mentality than has yet been achieved on this planet, and to an age that has at last won through to some agreed certainty of belief and some unquestionable judgment as to the good, and to full sanity of will. Or again you, like us, may be more than animal yet not fully human, seeing fitfully the good, but unable to serve it with any constancy. Such I expect will be your state; though if you have not actually crashed you must surely have outgrown some of our follies. Sanity of thought and sanity of will may not be quite so rare with you as with us. Persons of common intelligence will perhaps be less entangled in the maze of superstitions from which none of us today can entirely escape.

If you have outstripped us even thus far you will scarcely be able to conceive our mental confusion. For today every hoax finds some believer, and every truth is obscured by a fog of argument. While some pathetically dress up old idols in modern clothes, others are naively disillusioned because they have ransacked the universe in vain for a trace of God. Yet all the while (if I mistake not) in the streets and the farms, and indeed in every span of every man’s experience, something cries out for our admiration and our help, something better than any idol, something lovelier than the God of our fathers.

It is about this something that I must speak to you, lest your apprehension of it should through some misfortune happen to be more uncertain even than my own. But if, when you read these letters, you find that you have already passed beyond their range of thought, perhaps they will at least interest you historically; and perhaps you will forgive my importunity. However remote we may be from each other in time and in mentality, we are kin, and our two worlds are one. We, and all men, however gravely we conflict, are engaged on the same enterprise. In my language the goal of that enterprise may be called the fulfillment of the world’s capacity; but if this sounds barbarous to you, call it what you will, so long as you recognize in me a fellow-worker, though far-removed.”